Home > History Of Lebanon: Index > WAR IN LEBANON




Creation of the Shiite militia Amal, armed wing of the movement with disinherited. [B3, p 251]

- April 13: The Lebanese War began with a strike and counterstrike: Palestinian gunmen attacked Christian Phalangists (members of the Kataib faction) at a Beirut church, killing several, and hours later; Phalangists ambushed a busload of Palestinians, killing 27. 

- April 22: The committee of vigilance of Dekwaneh, fauborg northern of Beirut, asks the patriarch Maronite and the president of the room Mr. Kamel el-assad, to obtain the displacement of the camp of the Palestinian refugees of Tell el Zaatar where the extremists make the law, the area became a center for organized terrorism. [B4, p103]

- May 13: Sharp tension at Dekwane. [B4, p103]

- May 19: Dekwane is subjected to shootings of mortriers coming from Tell el Zaatar. [B4, p103]

- May 23: A fourth day of disorders at dekwane and the neighbourhoods, the assessment of 25 died and more than 100 wounded. [B4, p103]
- May 25: new confrontation make 7 killed and out of many casualties. [B4, p103]

- May 26: 13 killed and 23 wounded.

- July 10: Few thousands of Shiites supported by many Palestinians attacks the Christian village Qua and Deir el-Ahmar. [B4, p105]

- August 26: Confrontation between the Christians of the town of Zahle and the Shiites of the locality Hoche El-Oumara. [B4, p105]

- September: Palestinians attacked Zahle in the Beqaa and other cities.

- September 10: Syrian Special troops (Saeekah) invade the Lebanese town of Dier Ashashe forcing its inhabitants to flee. They massacre three priests. [S5] 

- September 11: Syrian Special troops invade the Southern town of Biet Malat, killing seven citizens and kidnapping ten. [S5]

- September 26: Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram accuses Syria of direct involvement in Lebanon's internal affairs in a bid to force its Baath ideology on its people.

- October 9: Syrian forces invade the Tal Abass town in the Akar district, killing fifteen citizens and injuring ten. They burned the town's church, hoping to instigate a religious strife among the Lebanese.

- October 30: Raid against Naame village. [B4, p61]

back to top



- January 2: A Syria special brigades enter the Bekaa Valley without any Lebanese authorization.

- January 7: Syrian Vice President Abdoul Halim Khadam states in an interview with a Kuwaiti Newspaper "Alrai Al'Am" " Lebanon is part of Syria, and it should be clear that Syria will take it back".

- January 15: The Palestinian Yarmouk Brigade enters the Bekaa Valley under Syrian command; attacking Lebanese army positions stationed in the area. the Palestinians arrived at Kab Elias, an Islamic Christian village situated in the Bekaa. Some ten days later, 16 Christians were killed and another 23 were injured. Following that, we witnessed the exodus of the Christians towards Zahlé, East Beirut and Jounieh.

- January 19: More Yarmouk forces enter northern Lebanon; attacking local police stations aided by Palestinian collaborators. 
The village of Hoche Barada in the Bekaa was attacked by Palestinians and Muslim Lebanese and completely pillaged and destroyed.

- January 20: Palestinians with the collaboration of the Syrian troops and their leftist allies attacked in force the Christian town of Damour. Damour was captured, the Phalangists were executed, the civilians were lined up against the walls of their houses and shot; their houses were then dynamited. Many of the young women had been raped and babies had been shot at close range at the back of the head. 149 bodies lay in the streets for days afterwards and 200 other civilians were never seen again. In all about 582 civilians had been murdered.

- January 21: Lieutenant Ahmad Khatib announced the Arab Army of Lebanon (AAL). Muslim troops rallied to the side of Lieutenant Ahmad Khatib. The AAL was involved in brutal acts of kidnapping and sectarian killing in areas under its control in the north, south and the Bekaa.

- March 5: The Syrian forces surround the northern towns of Kebait and Endact in Akhar; shelling both with heavy mortars, while falsely broadcasting lies claiming that the locals had asked for their help. Mr. Kamal Jumblat denounced the Syrian military invasion.

- March 10: officer Moiin Hatoum, member of the Army of Arab Lebanon led an attack on the Khyam Barracks. Over 30 Lebanese soldiers were killed.

- March 17: the leftist forces and the Palestinians launched an offensive across Mount Sannine to invade the Christian heartland.

- March 25: the artillery of the AAL led by Major Hussien Awwad, was scoring direct hits against Frangieh's residential quarters in the Presidential Palace and so the President was forced to leave the palace and seek residency for the rest of his term in Keserwan.

- April: The alliance of Lebanese National Movement (LNM) led by Kamal Jumblat LNM and PLO has managed to take control of nearly 70% of Lebanon.

- April 5: Sheik Bashir Gemayel, the Lebanese forces leader declares that Lebanese parties are getting closer to resolving their differences. The Syrian troops abort all peace and conciliation efforts.

- May 31: Syrian army units enter northern Lebanon for the first time equipped with tanks and heavy artillery.

- June 1: Syrian forces advance through the Beekah Valley and overtake many strategic locations.

- June 16: Syrian troops invade Lebanon and soon becomes the strongest party in the country, controlling many of the most important strategic positions.

- June 29: The camps at Jisr el Basha and Tal al-Zaatar fall (how?).

- July 4: On the road of Chekka to Deir Naurye: they blocked thirty cars and they massacred of all the occupants. [B4, p62]

- July 20: President Hafez Al-Assad boldly declares in his famous speech, (Damascus University): 
"Syria and Lebanon have been one country through history, and one nation, and this is what everyone should know... and that is why we supplied arms and weapons, and we interfered under the cover of Palestinians Liberation Army, and we entered our army through this army to Lebanon. Nobody knew that! We did not consult any Lebanese national party! We did not take any permit from anyone…" 

- August 5: A quota of Iraqi soldiers, come in Lebanon via Cairo, fought with Palestinians. [B4, p113]

- September: Following a Libya brokered cease-fire, Elias Sarkis wins in a Syria controlled presidential election.

- November: The fighting began to calm and a cease-fire yielded a lull. However, PLO attacks on northern Israel continued, bringing Israeli reprisals in Lebanon.
PLO joins the Muslims, with reactions from Syria, who were afraid of reactions from Israel. Syria establishes its presence inside Lebanon, with the blessings from the Arab League. 
- November 11: Syrian troops (Saeekah) attempt to assassinate Mr. Raymond Edeeh, head of the National Block party.

- December 15: Syrian army and its intelligence take control of the country's newspapers; forcing out their employees, physically abusing some and confiscating all publishing equipment in retaliation for the papers' open criticism of Syria's illegitimate military presence in Lebanon.

- December 19: Syrian army barges into Annahar newspaper and L'orient de Jour headquarters and occupied them.

- December 20: Syria's defense Minister attempts to justify these attacks to muzzle free speech as an attempt to stop them from publishing Zionist propaganda against Syria.

back to top



Israel started to equip and fund a renegade Christian remnant of the Lebanese Army led by Major Saad Haddad. Haddad's force, which became known as The Free Lebanon Army, and later as the South Lebanon Army (SLA), grew to strength of about 3,000 men and was allied closely with Israel.

- March 16: Syrian secret service agents (Mukhabarat) assassinate Druze Leader Mr. Kamal Jumblat (a few meters from a Syrian check point) in the shouf area. They proceed to instigate numerous massacres against Christians in the area; sharing culpability for the murder in cold blood: the village of Deir Dourit was erased, with 273 of innocent civilians.

- November 5: Syrian Saeeka invades the southern town of Alasheeyeh; killing forty-one citizens and forcing all its inhabitants to flee.

back to top



- February 7: The Syrian army attempts to enter the Lebanese Army Fiayadiyeh Barracks (the heart of Lebanon autonomy); however, the attack is thwarted by the Lebanese Army. General Major Abdallah Elhatshiti was killed in the battle; Syria lost thirty invaders.

- March 14: A heavy strike by PLO fedayeen produced an Israeli invasion of southern Lebanon, aiming at creating a buffer zone 10 km deep into Lebanese territory. During the invasion, Israel created a self-proclaimed security zone on the southern border of Lebanon, which was manned by the South Lebanon Army (SLA), a Lebanese militia sympathetic to Israel. After three months, most of the Israeli troops withdrew, and Israel controlled the southern 10% of the country. To help reduce attacks in the area, the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) was deployed in the southern part of the country. 

- March 19: United Nations (UN) Security Council with Resolution 425: Calls upon Israel immediately to cease its military action against Lebanese territorial integrity and withdraw forthwith its forces from all Lebanese territory.

- May: International pressure makes Israeli withdraw from occupied territory, and ends up with a buffer zone of between 4 and 12 km all along Lebanon's southern border.

- June 14: Syrian forces shell the Christian town of Diar Elahmar in the Bekaah Valley.

- June 28: Gangs from the Syrian secret service (Al - Mukhabarat) invade the towns of Alkah, Rass Beaalbak, and Jadidat Altoufah. They kidnap tens of citizens, later found dead in the towns' vicinity. The whereabouts of many other inhabitants remain unknown.

- June 30: Syrian tank brigades, supported by their Air Force, invade the hills of Batroun in northern Lebanon. Despite heavy resistance from the locals and the Lebanese forces, they overtake the Bashari district.

- July 1: Syria rushed forces to Beirut and unleashed a devastating artillery attack across Christian East Beirut; particularly the Phalangist stronghold of Ashrafieh, in preparation for taking over the area, and for a hundred days the Syrians pounded Ashrafieh.

- August 31: Imam Sadr disappeared in Libya

- September 30: Heavy fighting breaks out between the Syrian army and the Lebanese Forces all over Christian East Beirut. Unable to capture the area, they retreat and resort instead to indiscriminate shelling of the area with heavy mortars and 240 ml cannons.
Their cowardly act takes the lives of 100 innocent civilians; injuring more than 1000.

back to top

5. 1979

- May: Fighting between the Phalange and the National Liberal Party (of Chamoun) start.
- August: The Syrians shell the villages of Niha, Deir Bella and Douma in North Lebanon. 

back to top

6. 1981

Nabih Berri takes the head of the Shiite movement amal.
Between 1980 and 1982, fighting became rampant in Beirut again, with vicious militia wars, car bombings, kidnappings, and assassinations.

- February 10: Syrian army invade the town of Kanat in northern Lebanon; conquering it after six days. Tanks and heavy artillery were used in this savage Syrian attack.

- February 23: Syrian thugs ???murder Shek Bashir Gemayel's daughter, Maya, in cold blood.

- February 24: Salim Alousi a well known anti-Syrian Lebanese journalist is found dead at the Aramoun area. The Syrian invading troops kidnapped Mr. Lousi, tortured him and mutilated his body: his fingers were cut and burned with acid.

- March 13: Syrian agent Hussein Mustafa Teliess attempts to assassinate former Lebanese President Camille Chamoun with a car bomb.

- July 7: The Phalangists launched a surprise attack against Chamoun's Militia, the Tigers.

- July 22: The Syrian Mukhabarat assassinate Mr. Riyad Taha, the head of Lebanese Journalists Union..

- August 28: Syrian secret agents attempt to assassinate the American Ambassador to Lebanon Mr. Joan Ghonterdean.

- November 10: Syrian agents exploded two car bombs in East Beirut (Ashrafeyeh) killing and injuring tens of innocent civilians.

- December 19: The Palestinian forces around Zahle were incited by the Syrians to shell the city. A heavy fighting broke out between the Syrians and the Lebanese Forces after the Syrians sent a patrol down the Zahle Boulevard, the patrol was attacked and five Syrian soldiers and one Syrian Major were killed.

back to top

7. 1981

- February 20: Syrians attempt to assassinate a Catholic Arch Bishop in the town of Bahamdoun close to a Syrian military checkpoint in a bid to instigate a religious conflict in the area.

- April 2: Syrian artillery basis located in Mount Lebanon shells East Beirut killing 100 innocent civilians, including school students, and without any warning.

- April 2: The Syrians surrounding Zahle with 2600 troops and they began bombarding the city. On the first day of battle the Syrians tried to seize the high ground above the city but were repelled with the loss of three armoured vehicles and the death of over twenty soldiers and so the next day the Syrians retaliated with an artillery barrage on east Beirut, which inflicted heavy civilian casualties. Christian local militias resisted fiercely for 4 months, thwarting the Syrian invasion.

- July 10: The IDF commenced five days of air strikes and naval bombardments against PLO strongholds in southern Lebanon.

- April 3: Ten thousand Syrian troops attack the Christians town of Zahleh in an attempt to conquer it. Christian local militias resisted fiercely for 4 months, thwarting the Syrian invasion.

- September 3: Syrian agents assassinate the French Ambassador to Beirut Mr. Louis de Lamar.

- December 15: Iraq accuses Syrian secret service of bombing the Iraqi Embassy in Beirut; killing thirty and injuring more than one hundred twenty.

back to top

8. 1982

- April 10: The U.S. and Soviet Ambassadors to Lebanon met separately with Lebanon's President Elias Sarkis, who asked both for help from their countries in staving off a feared Israeli invasion of southern Lebanon. [S21]

- April 11: The U.S. Ambassador to Israel, Samuel Lewis, after meeting with Prime Minister Begin in Jerusalem for three hours, said that Mr. Begin "assured me that the Israeli cabinet has taken no decision to go into Lebanon in any way, shape or form." [S21]

- April 27: Syrian agents assassinate Sheik Ahmad Assaf who had denounced the Syrian occupation.

- May 1: Syrian agents assassinate Father Philip Abou Suliaman in an attempt to instigate religious strife in the area.

- May 24: An explosion inside the French Embassy kills nine and injures twenty-six. The notorious Syrian agent Hussein Teliess carried out the attack.

- May 24: The French newspaper Le Matin openly accuses the Syrian secret service of bombing the French Embassy. It releases a report naming all those responsible for the terrorist attack.

- June 5: After heavy Israeli air-raids on Lebanon carried out on June 4 and 5 and retaliatory shelling of northern Israel by PLO forces, the U.S. voted in favor of United Nations Security Council resolution 508. The resolution, which passed unanimously, "calls upon all the parties to the conflict to cease immediately and simultaneously all military activities within Lebanon and across the Lebanon-Israel border and no later than 0600 hours local time on Sunday, June 6, 1982." [S21]

- June 6: Aiming to pacify the Palestinians and punish Lebanon for hosting them, Israel launched "Operation Peace for Galilee," a full-scale invasion of Lebanon. Israel pushed north to Beirut forcing a PLO retreat. Through international mediation, thousands of PLO troops and Syrians were evacuated from Beirut and Tripoli by sea. Nearly 18,000 Lebanese, in addition to many Palestinians and Syrians, were killed in the Israeli invasion. 

The Israeli invasion, as expected, also provoked a confrontation with Syria, who lost nearly 400 tanks, 86 MIG fighter aircraft and 19 surface-to-air missile batteries in a week's fighting. Nonetheless, Syria remained powerful in northern and eastern Lebanon. [S12]

The United States voted in favor of United Nations Security Council resolution 509, demanding Israel "withdraw all its military forces forthwith and unconditionally to the internationally recognized boundaries of Lebanon." [S21]

- June 7: The U.S. Department of State issued a statement on the fighting in Lebanon which said, in part, that "Israel will have to withdraw its forces from Lebanon, and the Palestinians will have to stop using Lebanon as a launching pad for attacks on Israel." [S21]

- June 8: The United States cast the lone veto of a United Nations Security Council resolution condemning Israel for its noncompliance with U.N. resolutions 508 and 509 and threatening Israel with sanctions unless it agreed within six hours to a ceasefire and unconditional withdrawal from Lebanon. [S21]

- June 10: Reagan Administration officials disclosed that the President had sent Israel's Prime Minister Begin a "firm" but "friendly" message calling for Israeli forces to cease firing in Lebanon and to prepare to withdraw. [S21]

- July 11: Syria troops shell the area of East Beirut for no reason; killing and injuring more innocent citizens.

- August 10: The Government of Israel accepted "in principle" but with conditions, the U.S. proposal for the evacuation from West Beirut of PLO forces. [S21]

- August 18: Lebanon and the PLO officially approved a U.S.-mediated agreement for the evacuation of PLO guerrillas front Beirut. [S21]

- August 19: Israel approved the U.S.-mediated evacuation agreement, but said evacuation could not begin until guerrillas in Beirut hand over two Israeli prisoners. 
Lebanon requested the U.S., France and Italy to send troops to oversee the evacuation of guerrillas from Beirut. [S21]

- August 20: President Reagan formally announced his order to send 800 U.S. marines to Lebanon to participate, as part of a multinational peacekeeping force, in the safe evacuation of PLO forces from West Beirut. "In no case," the President said, "will our troops stay longer than 30 days." He also said the evacuation would "set the stage for ... the rapid withdrawal of all foreign forces from that country." [S21]

- August 21: A multinational force made up of U.S., French, British, and Italian troops tried to stabilize the situation and convince PLO that they have to leave Lebanon.

- August 23: Bashir Gemayel is elected president.

- August 25: Eight hundred U.S. marines from the 32nd Amphibious Marine unit took up positions in the port of Beirut. [S21]

- September 14: Syrian agent, Habib Chartouni, assassinates President elect Bashir Gemayel.

- September 15: Israeli troops move into Beirut.

- September 17: United Nations (UN) Security Council with Resolution 520 to ensure the withdrawal of all non-Lebanese forces from Lebanon.

- September 18: Sabra and Shatila massacre. In 3 days, about 2,000 children, men and women are killed.
The US Administration released a statement saying that, together with the governments of France and Italy, it had urged the Secretary General of the United Nations "to dispatch observers immediately to the sites of the greatest human suffering and losses in and around" the city of Beirut. [S21]

- September 20: A Western Multi-National Force is started to be deployed in Beirut, consisting of US, British, French and Italian troops.

- September 21: Amin Gemayel, Bashir's brother, is elected new president.

- September 25: Two American military officers belonging to a U.N. observer mission in Lebanon were killed when the jeep in which they were riding ran over a land mine nine miles east of Beirut. [S21]

- September 29: The Israeli troops leave Beirut.
About 800 U.S. marines from the 32nd Amphibious Unit landed in Beirut and immediately took up positions at the Beirut International Airport, from which the last Israeli soldiers had departed only minutes earlier. The arrival of the marines had been delayed for three days while the Administration waited for Israel to evacuate the airport. [S21]

- September 30: Four-hundred more U.S. marines landed in Lebanon, bringing the total U.S. marine presence up to 1,200. [S21]

- October 6: A senior Reagan Administration official said that the Administration hoped to have a plan ready within about ten days for the withdrawal of Israeli, Syrian and Palestinian forces from Lebanon. [S21]

- October 7: Two Israeli tanks that had been positioned within firing range of U.S. marines at the Beirut International Airport were withdrawn. The withdrawal took place after several days of negotiations between the U.S. and Israel, which had initially refused to move the tanks. [S21]

- October 14: U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz met in Washington with Israel's Foreign Minister, Yitzhak Shamir, to discuss Israel's proposals for withdrawing its forces from Lebanon. [S21]

- October 18: Senior Reagan Administration officials said at a press briefing that their "target date" for the withdrawal of Israeli, Syrian and PLO forces from Lebanon is "the end of the year." 
The United States and 12 other member nations of the U.N. Security Council voted in favor of extending for three months until Jan. 19, 1983-the peacekeeping mandate of some 7,000 U.N. troops in southern Lebanon. The Soviet Union and Poland abstained. [S21]

- October 28: U.S. envoy Morris Draper held talks, in Beirut with Lebanon's President Amin Gemayel on the establishment of a framework for discussions between the Lebanese and Israeli governments on the withdrawal of Israeli, Syrian and Palestinian forces from Lebanon. [S21]

- November 4: A contingent of U.S. marines with the muIti-national force in Beirut began patrolling major roadways in East Beirut. [S21]

- November 29: Lebanon's President Amin Gemayel formally asked the United States, France, and Italy to increase the number of their troops in the multinational peacekeeping force in Lebanon. The three countries have about 3,400 troops in the Beirut area, 1,300 of whom are U.S. marines. [S21]

- December 16: President Reagan said in an interview with The Washington Post that "we think the time has come now" for the armed forces of Israel, Syria and the PLO to leave Lebanon. The President also said that "for those countries to delay in getting out now places them in the position of being occupying armies." [S21]

back to top

9. 1983

- January 17: U.S., Israeli and Lebanese officials held their first formal session of negotiations on an agenda that was agreed to January 13. The agenda calls for "the termination of the state of war" between Israel and Lebanon, -a framework for mutual relations," and arrangements for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon "within the context of the evacuation of all foreign forces." [S21]

- February 9: Responding to a report that Lebanon's Prime Minister Shafiq al-Wazzan had written guarantees and assurances from the Syrians and the PLO that they would "withdraw totally" from Lebanon at the appropriate time, State Department spokesman Alan Romberg said: "It's our understanding that they (the Syrians and PLO) would be willing to withdraw totally." [S21]

- February 19: A contingent of U.S. marines belonging to the multinational peacekeeping force in Lebanon began expanded patrols in East Beirut, four days after Lebanon's Army took over security duties there. The marines have been occasionally patrolling major roadways in East Beirut since last November 4. [S21]

- April 18: The US embassy in West Beirut was partially destroyed by a car bomb on, leaving 63 people dead, including 17 Americans. The "Islamic Jihad," a group presumably backed by Iran, claimed responsibility. [S12]

- April 20: Media and world newspapers from Egypt, Jordan, United States and Israel reveal that the Islamic brotherhood group who claimed responsibility for the bomb attack on the US Embassy in Beirut is nothing but a cover up for the Syrian secret service.

- May 4: Lebanon approved a U.S.-mediated draft agreement for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon. U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz helped negotiate the proposed plan through a series of meetings, beginning April 27, with Israeli and Lebanese officials in both Jerusalem and Beirut. [S21]

- May 11: Secretary of State George Shultz-who returned to Washington after spending two weeks in the Mideast and several days in Paris attending an international economic meeting-told reporters that although Syria had been "very critical" of the Lebanon-Israel agreement for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon, he was "confident" that Syria would eventually agree to withdraw its forces from Lebanon. [S21]

- May 16: The parliaments of Israel and Lebanon both endorsed the U.S.-backed agreement between Lebanon and Israel which calls for the withdrawal of Israel's troops from Lebanon. The Israeli approval was by a vote of 57 to 6, with 45 abstentions. Most of the abstentions were cast by Labor Party members, who disapproved the agreement because it did not set a specific timetable for the withdrawal of Israeli forces. The vote in Lebanon's parliament was unanimous. [S21]

- May 17: Government representatives of Lebanon and Israel signedin separate ceremonies in each of the two countries-the agreement formally ending the state of war between Lebanon and Israel and setting forth a framework for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon. The signing was witnessed by Morris Draper, the U.S. Special Negotiator for Lebanon. Negotiations on the withdrawal accord commenced last December 28. [S21]

- May I8: In response to Syria's announced decision not to receive U.S. special envoy Philip Habib for a discussion of a Syrian withdrawal from Lebanon, State Department spokesman John Hughes said: "The Syrian attitude regarding the Ambassador's (Habib's) visit is certainly not in the spirit we hoped to have." But he stressed that Administration officials had "not accepted the suggestion that this is a final closing of the door" for a possible Syrian commitment to leave Lebanon. [S21]

- May 20: The Senate approved $251 million in additional assistance for Lebanon this year, including $150 million in grants to help rebuild Lebanon's economy, $100 million in loan guarantees for military equipment purchases, and $1 million for military training. [S21]

- May 27: Responding to the increase in the number of Syrian forces in Lebanon and along the Syrian-Lebanon border, the State Department issued a statement saying: "The Syrian buildup of forces into Lebanon and along the Syrian-Lebanon border can lead only to increased tensions in an already volatile area and could threaten the uneasy peace that now prevails in Lebanon." [S21]

- May 28: Amid increased tension in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon between Israel and Syria, a senior State Department official attending the Williamsburg economic summit conference said: "The additional Soviet weaponry, the Soviets manning that weaponry, the aggressive behavior of the Syrians, their association with PLO guerrilla forces, with Iranian terrorist groups that are there, all provide a situation that is dangerous." The official, who could not be named under the rules of the briefing, said that Israel had demonstrated "restraint" in the face of "quite a large Syrian buildup." [S21]

- June 8: President Reagan met at the White House with Lebanon's Foreign Minister, Elie Salem, who told reporters that while in the U.S. on a private visit he was seeking "to make sure the American interest in Lebanon does not lag." Mr. Salem added that he felt "pretty confident" that Syria would agree to withdraw its forces from Lebanon. [S21]

- June 14: The Lebanese parliament officially ratified-by a 65 to 2 vote, with 4 abstentions-the U.S.-mediated agreement between Lebanon and Israel which provides a framework for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon. [S21]

- June 27: The Defense Department announced its plans to provide Lebanon's army with $57 million worth of military gear, including 102 armored personnel carriers, 95 vehicles to transport mortar equipment, 25 mobile command posts, machine guns, communications equipment, spare parts and other supplies. The transfer represents the third installment of military aid to Lebanon since November under a U.S. program designed to rebuild the Lebanese army. [S21]

- July 6: Following his nearly five-hour meeting with Syria's President Hafez al-Assad, Secretary of State George Shultz said that he and the Syrian president "had no agreement about the agreement" signed last May 17 between Israel and Lebanon, which provided for the conditional withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon. [S21]

- July 20: Commenting on the Israeli cabinet's announced decision July 20 to "redeploy" its troops in Lebanon to positions south of the Shuf mountains and the Beirut-Damascus highway, State Department spokesman John Hughes reiterated U.S. policy of seeking the "full withdrawal" of all foreign troops in Lebanon. He added: "Any partial withdrawal, therefore, should be within the framework of that objective and should not complicate the very difficult tasks facing the government of President Gemayel" of Lebanon. [S21]

- July 21: President Amin Gemayel of Lebanon, who arrived in Washington July 19 on a state visit, told a gathering of the National Press Club that Israel's decision of a partial troop pullout from Lebanon "could endanger all the peace process and also maybe the (Lebanon- Israel) agreement of the 17th of the May" on the full withdrawal of Israeli forces. One day earlier he told reporters on Capitol Hill: "We are against the partial withdrawal ... (It) means a de facto partition." [S21]

- July 23: President Amin Gemayel of Lebanon concluded a five-day visit to Washington, where he met with President Reagan and senior Administration officials to discuss ways of achieving a complete withdrawal of all foreign troops in Lebanon. A framework for the withdrawal of Israeli forces was signed by Lebanon and Israel last May 17. [S21]

- August 19: As Israel prepared to redeploy its forces in southern Lebanon. [S21]

- August 29: Two U.S. marines were killed and 14 others wounded in Lebanon when their positions at the Beirut International Airport were fired upon for more than five hours from territory controlled by Muslim Shiite militiamen. The marines returned the fire with artillery, small arms, and rocket fire from a helicopter gunship. The deaths were the first combat fatalities suffered by the 1,200 marines in Lebanon since arriving there September 29, 1982, as part of a 5,400-man multinational peacekeeping force along with British, French and Italian troops. [S21]

- August 31: The Israelis withdraw from the Shouf Mountains, and heavy fighting ensues between the Lebanese Forces and the Druze militia, the progressive Socialist party, which results in a mass massacre of Christians from the region. During the fighting, many towns are destroyed, especially in the Christian town of Bhamdoun.
36 Christians had their throats cut in Bmarian 

- September: President Amin Gemayel addressed a letter to the Syrian President
Hafez El Assad requesting the withdrawal of his forces from Lebanon. The Syrians ignored the request.
The Druzes surrounded and besieged Dier al Qamar, which held 40,000 Christian residents and refugees and 1,000 Lebanese Forces fighters. The first few weeks of September saw a rising number of massacres being committed against Christian civilians. 

- September 1: President Reagan ordered an additional 2,000 U.S. marines, aboard three naval vessels, to be sent to Lebanon's coastal waters. This will increase the number of marines on ships offshore to 2,600. [S21]

- September 2: Palestinian forces led by Syria with special Syrian units launch a massive attack against the Souk Al-Gareb town in an attempt to take over the Presidential Palace in Baabda district. The attack was courageously foiled by the Lebanese Army.

- September 3: Israeli troops withdraws from the Shouf region, and the Phalange militia and the Lebanese army moves in, resulting in a war between them and the PLO-Druze alliance. The Lebanese army soon got aid from USA and France.

- September 4: Israeli forces in Lebanon made a partial pullback, by evacuating their positions along the Beirut-Damascus highway, in the Shuf mountains, and in the outskirts of Beirut. They established a new front line in southern Lebanon at the Awali river near Sidon, 20 miles south of Beirut. Israeli troops continued to control key mountain ranges near the Beirut-Damascus highway and sections of Lebanon's Bekaa Valley. [S21]

- September 6: The Lebanese government officially complains to the United States and the European government that Syrian and Palestinian troops have attempted to overthrow the Lebanese government and take control over the country.

- September 7: 200 Christians massacred in Bhamdoun. [S5]

- September 8: Syria declares publicly that it will be willing to help its allies overthrow the Lebanese government.

- September 8: US spokesman Mr. Allen Ronburg, in a press release, makes it clear that the US holds Syria and its troops fully responsible for the escalating situation in Lebanon; accusing Damascus of supplying its' allied Militias fighting against the Lebanese government with all kinds of weapons.

- September 10: 30 Christians massacred in Ras el-Matn, 64 slaughtered in Bireh, several victims were executed in the village church, some of them on the altar. [S5]

- September 11: 15 Christians massacred in Maasser Beit ed-Dine, 36 in Chartoun. [S5]

- September 12: 3 Christians massacred in Ain el-Hour, 12 in Bourjayne, 11 in Fawara. [S5]

- September 13: 84 Christians massacred in Maasser el-Chouf. [S5]

- September 25: A cease-fire is brokered between the fighting parties.

During the fighting the mixed Christian and Druze village of Kfar Matta whose Christian population had been expelled was attacked and briefly held by the LF. 58 Druze civilians were killed by the Lebanese Forces. 
Within days, the Christians lost sixty villages, suffering 1000 dead and 50,000 homeless. [S12]

- September 26: The US and Syria negotiate a cease-fire, with the Druze in control of the Shouf.

- October 16: several thousands of integrist Shiites out of weapon seize the barracks of Sheik abdallah at baalbeck. [B3, p 251]
The Shiite superior council calls with resistance against israelien occupant. [B3, p252]

- October 23: Terrorist attacks on US and French military headquarters: 241 marines were killed when a barracks at Beirut International Airport was blown up by a truck packed with explosives, a similar attack destroyed a French military barracks a few kilometers away killing 56 French troops. 

- November: A reconciliation conference is held in Geneva, Switzerland.

- November 4: Attack against the israelien HQ in the south-Lebanon (61 dead): revendiction: Islamic Jihad. [B3, p252]

- November 8: A force of nearly 200 U.S. marines withdrew from its outpost at Lebanon University's science building in southeast Beirut and was later ferried to U.S. ships offshore, leaving the position to Lebanese army troops. The move came less than 24 hours after the marine force had fought an intense gunbattle with guerrillas. The withdrawal will leave up to an estimated 1,800 U.S. marines on the ground in Lebanon. [S21]

- November 7: The service action of DGSE (French secret maltreatment) deposits, without success, a jeep trapped in front of the embassy of Iran at Beirut. [B3, p252]

- November 17: France launched an air strike against Iranian Revolutionary Guard positions in the Bekaa valley in retaliation for the bombing, and the US Sixth Feet struck Syrian air defense position in Lebanon after they fired on a US reconnaissance aircraft, Sporadic fighting continued into January.

- December 1: President Reagan, after a White House meeting with President Amin Gemayel of Lebanon, said: "We stand by the May 17 agreement (between Lebanon and Israel) as the best and most viable basis for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon." President Gemayel came to Washington seeking to modify the terms of the agreement-an objective which had been authorized by all of Lebanon's factional leaders during their "reconciliation conference" in Geneva in early November. [S21]

- December 4: A force of 28 U.S. warplanes bombed Syrian army positions located in an area approximately 10 to 20 miles east of Beirut. Two American planes, containing three pilots, were shot down and another plane was slightly damaged. One pilot was killed, another was injured and taken prisoner by Syria, and the third pilot parachuted to safety. President Reagan said the bombing raid was in response to Syria's "unprovoked attack" December 3 on U.S. planes flying reconnaissance missions over Lebanon. In that attack, Syria fired antiaircraft and surface-to-air missiles at U.S. jets which were reconnoitering some of the same Syrian positions which had been bombed by Israeli jets earlier that same day-but did not hit any of the planes. The retaliatory raid on Syrian positions marked the first time U.S. aircraft have been used in combat in the Middle East. [S21]

Following the U.S. bombing attack on Syrian forces in Lebanon, U.S. marine positions at the Beirut airport came under heavy artillery, rocket, and mortar fire from Druze held areas. The attack lasted more than four hours and left eight marines dead. A spokesman for the marines said U.S. troops responded with artillery and tank fire, and later with guns fired from U.S. warships off the coast. [S21]

- December 5: The Soviet Union, in a statement by its official press agency Tass, "resolutely condemned" the U.S. bombing raid on Syrian positions in Lebanon of December 4 and warned that "the U.S. government ought to be aware of the fact that the U.S. armed interference in Lebanon, the aggressive actions of the U.S.A. against Syria, constitute a serious threat to peace in the Middle East, and not only in that region." [S21]

- December 7: Syria's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Farouk al-Charaa, said: "The release of the prisoner of war"-a reference to Lt. Robert Goodman, the American pilot captured by Syria December 4 during a U.S. bombing raid on its positions in Lebanon-"very much depends on the development of relations between Syria and the United States." Syrian Defense Minister Lieut. Gen. Mustapha Tlas had said on December 5 that Lt. Goodman would be released when the "war" is over.

- December 13: Two U.S. warships off the coast of Lebanon fired a total of approximately 50 five-inch shells at Syrian antiaircraft batteries in the mountains about 12 miles east of Beirut. The U.S. naval bombardment came immediately after two American reconnaissance aircraft were fired upon-but not hit-during overflights of the Syrian positions. [S21]

- December 14: For the first time since it arrived off the coast of Lebanon last September, the U.S. battleship New Jersey fired its 16-inch guns at targets inside Lebanon, hurling eleven 1,900-pound shells at Syrian antiaircraft batteries east of Beirut which had fired on U.S. reconnaissance planes minutes earlier. The planes returned safely to a U.S. aircraft carrier. Two other U.S. warships also fired a total of sixty 70-pound shells at the Syrian gun sites. [S21]

- December 15: The USS New Jersey fired 40 rounds from its smaller, five-inch guns at Druze militia positions east of Beirut which had been the source of machine gun and rocket fire against U.S. marines at their airport compound. No marines were killed or wounded in the gunfire. [S21]

- December 16: For the fourth day in a row, Israeli gunboats off the Lebanese port city of Tripoli fired shells at PLO forces loyal to Yasser Arafat as they prepared to depart from Tripoli. [S21]

- December I8: For the third time in less than one week, U.S. warships bombarded Syrian antiaircraft positions in the mountains east of Beirut which had been the source of fire on U.S. reconnaissance jets, none of which were hit. [S21]

- December 19: In a report on its inquiry into the October 23 bombing of the U.S. marine compound near Beirut, the House Armed Services investigations subcommittee concluded that "inadequate" measures had been taken by the entire chain of command to ensure the safety of the marines. The subcommittee also urged that the Administration "determine if deployment of the Marine unit ... is justified." [S21]

- December 20: Attack against the Frégate post office of French quota in Beirut: 20 dead. [B3, p252]
Yasser Arafat and 4,000 of his loyalist forces withdrew from the port of Tripoli, Lebanon aboard five Greek passenger ships flying U.N. flags. The ships-which were not hampered by nearby Israeli warships-were escorted by French naval vessels. The scheduled departure of the PLO forces on December 19 had been delayed a day by Israel's bombardment of the port-which sank one freighter and heavily damaged another. [S21]

back to top

10. 1984

- January 3: The Syrian government released U.S. Navy pilot Lt. Robert 0. Goodman, Jr., who had been taken prisoner December 3 after his plane was shot down by Syrian forces during an American bombing raid on Syria's positions in Lebanon. [S21] 

- January 8: A U.S. marine was killed by unidentified gunmen who opened fire on a U.S. helicopter in western Beirut while U.S. troops were unloading. [S21]

- January 30: At the U.S. marine compound near Beirut, one marine was killed and three others wounded during day-long fighting between marines and Shiite Amal militiamen firing from Beirut's southern suburbs. A spokesman for the militia said that rounds from the marine base had killed two civilians and wounded over a dozen others in the Shiite neighborhoods. [S21]

- January 31: Lebanese President Amin Gemayel said in an interview with Washington Post reporters that if U.S. marines were withdrawn from Lebanon "there would not be a new president to replace Amin Gemayel but a revolutionary council under Soviet control, or chaos." [S21]

- February 3: The Lebanese army and the Lebanese Forces attacks Shi'i suburbs of West Beirut. This resulted in fighting between the army and the Lebanese Forces and the Amal-Druze alliance.

- February 5: Lebanese President Amin Gemayel accepted the resignation of Prime Minister Shafiq Wazzan. All nine ministers of his cabinet, both Christian and Muslim, also resigned. Mr. Wazzan said he was quitting to help improve chances for the creation of a government of "reconciliation." [S21]

- February 6: Amal Shi'I movement and the Druses of the socialist Party progressite take control of western Beirut, at the end of bloody combat with the Lebanese army. [B3, p252]
U.S. jets bombed targets in the Shuf mountains east of Beirut. [S21]

- February 7: The U.S. battleship New Jersey fired its 5-inch guns at positions south of the Beirut airport, from which shells were being fired at the U.S. marine compound. over forty "non-essential" U.S. embassy personnel, and their dependents, were evacuated. [S21]

- February 8: For more than nine hours, the USS New Jersey fired 340 rounds from its 16-inch guns at 15 "pre-selected targets" inside Syrian- controlled territory in Lebanon. Over four hundred 5-inch shells were also fired by other U.S. ships at the same targets, which included command bunkers, ammunition dumps, and rocket and gun sites. The bombardment was part of the Administration's new policy of shelling opposition positions which fire into greater Beirut. [S21]

- February 9: For the second day in a row, U.S. gunships shelled antigovernment forces who had been firing on East Beirut. [S21]

- February 11: More than 800 American civilians were evacuated from Beirut during a three-day operation that came to a close today.

- February 15: French engineer Christian Joubert was kidnapped by unknown while leaving the embassy of France, and released after 61 days of detention on April 15.[ B3, p252]

- February 16: President Amin Gemayel of Lebanon accepted a Saudi sponsored "peace plan" which included a call for the abrogation of the Lebanon-Israel agreement signed in May, 1983. [S21]

- February 21: The first group of a total of 1,200 U.S. combat marines belonging to the 22nd Marine Amphibious Unit began their "redeployment" from the Beirut airport compound to U.S. ships offshore-a move announced by President Reagan on February 7. Several hundred other American "support" personnel had already been evacuated, along with heavy equipment and supplies. [S21]

- February 26: The last of the U.S. marines stationed at the Beirut airport as part of a multinational peacekeeping force were "redeployed" to American ships. Their positions on the perimeter of the airport were immediately taken up by Shiite Amal militiamen, while the marines' headquarters complex and the airport proper were quickly taken over by several largely Shiite brigades of the Lebanese army. [S21]
Less than an hour after the last U.S. marines were withdrawn from Lebanon, the U.S. battleship New Jersey fired a barrage of 16 one-ton shells at Syrian antiaircraft batteries located in the mountains east of Beirut. The U.S. destroyer Caron fired some 50 five-inch shells at the same targets. Rockets from the Syrian batteries had earlier been fired at a U.S. reconnaissance plane but it had not been hit. [S21]

- March 5: Lebanon cancels the Lebanese-Isreali peace treaty of May 1983.

- March 6: It was Amin's first official visit to Damascus. 

- March 12: The Lebanese traditional political leaders, both Christians and Muslims, as well as Druze and Shia militia commanders were to meet in Lausanne, Switzerland. All except the Lebanese Forces were to be represented.

- July 30: About 90 U.S. marines, who stayed behind in Beirut to guard the U.S. diplomatic mission after the withdrawal of U.S. troops last February, were today returning to their units in the Sixth Fleet. Security needs at the U.S. mission have diminished since most embassy functions are now being administered at a new site in the Christian town of Aukar, six miles north of East Beirut. [S21]

- September 20: A truck bomb killed 20 (two of whom were U.S. citizens) at the U S. embassy annex in Awkar. [S16]
The U.S. embassy annex in Aukar, Lebanon--seven miles northeast of Beirut--was severely damaged and two U.S. servicemen were killed when a van loaded with explosives forced its way to a spot about 30 feet from the front of the building and exploded. Seven Lebanese employed at the embassy also were killed, as well as 5 to 15 non-employees. Twenty Americans were injured, including U.S. Ambassador Reginald Bartholomew. Visiting British Ambassador David Miers also suffered minor injuries. An estimated 40 to 50 Lebanese were hurt, 19 of whom worked at the embassy. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by Islamic Jihad, which had threatened on September 8 to strike an American installation in response to the U.S. veto September 6 of a U.N. Security Council resolution. It called on Israel to "lift all restrictions and obstacles" it has imposed on southern Lebanon, and reaffirmed previous resolutions calling for an Israeli withdrawal.
Murphy had arrived in Beirut September 21 as part of a team sent to investigate the U.S. embassy bombing. But he was then dispatched to other capitals for "exploratory" talks after indications that progress perhaps was possible on the withdrawal of Israeli troops from southern Lebanon.

- September 23: Four Americans injured in the bombing of the U.S. embassy were flown from Beirut to Tel Hashomer hospital in Tel Aviv to receive treatment for shrapnel wounds and punctured ear drums. The U. S. had turned down a similar Israeli offer of medical assistance made in October, 1983, after the U.S. marine barracks at the Beirut airport was leveled by a suicide bomber.

- November 13: Security guards protecting the U.S. ambassador's residence in Beirut mistakenly fired at a small, civilian plane that they believed was about to attack. The Saudi-owned plane was not hit. The air space over the ambassador's residence has been closed to civilian traffic for several weeks, at the request of U.S. government officials.

- November 20: Attack against the appendix of the embassy of the United States at east of Beirut: Revendiction: jihad Islamic. [B3, p252]

back to top

11. 1986

- January 8: Gunmen in West Beirut kidnapped the Rev. Lawrence Martin Jenco, an American priest who directs Catholic Relief Services in Lebanon. He is the fifth American to be seized in Lebanon in the past 11 months. So far, none have been found.

- January 20: Israel began the first phase of what it said was a three-stage plan for the withdrawal of its troops from Lebanon, although it offered no timetable as to when the withdrawal would be completed. In the first phase, Israeli military forces along the Mediterranean coast will establish a new position at the Litani River. From that point, Israeli troops will redeploy along a new line running sharply northeast, keeping the Lebanese towns of Nabatiye and Jezzin under Israeli control.

- January 28: The London news agency Visnews released a videotape showing kidnapped U.S. diplomat William Buckley-who was captured at gunpoint in Beirut last March-holding a recent newspaper and saying that lie and two other Americans taken hostage in Beirut were "well." Mr. Buckley then asked "that our government take action for our release quickly." The two other Americans he was referring to were Jeremy Levin, Cable News Network's bureau chief in Beirut, and Benjamin Weir, a Presbyterian minister. Two additional Americans missing in Beirut are the Reverend Lawrence Jenco and Peter Kilburn.

- February 16: The IDF implemented the first stage of a withdrawal from Lebanon, evacuating its troops from the northern front at the Awali River to south of the Litani River, thus removing Sidon from Israeli control. Heavy fights over southern Lebanon starts after withdrawal of Israeli troops. Palestinians making commando raids on northern Israel were joined and later replaced by a new extremist group, Hezbollah (Party of God), which enjoyed Iranian support and Syrian approval. They face Israeli-backed South Lebanese Army, SLA, which had been formed in 1982.

- February 16: Israel completed the first phase of a three-stage withdrawal from southern Lebanon by pulling back from the city of Sidon, two days before a self-imposed deadline. Nearly 2,000 soldiers of the Lebanese Army's 12th brigade immediately took up positions in the city, along with members of a Shiite militia known as the National Resistance Front.

- March: Exodus of tens of thousands of Christians from Iklim El_Kharroub and the eastern part of Saida. The Palestinians and Lebanese Druze laid siege to, pillaged and burned over twenty Christian villages.

- March 2: Approximately 35 Americans working with the U.N. peacekeeping force in southern Lebanon (UNIFIL) were removed from their jobs out of fear they would be attacked by Shiite Muslim guerrillas. Fears of an attack have heightened since February 28, when the U.S. indicated that it would veto a Lebanese-sponsored U.N. Security Council resolution condemning Israel for its new "iron-fist" policies in southern Lebanon.

- March 4: An explosion devastated a mosque in the village of Marakah--only hours after the IDF had inspected the site--killing at least twelve people, many of whom were Shia guerrilla commanders. 

- March 8: Attack with the booby-trapped car against the residence of the Sheik Fadlallah. 80 dead.. [B3, p253]

- March 11: A large Israeli armored force wreaked vengeance on the village of Az Zrariyah, killing 40 people and detaining 200 men.

- March 12: The U.S. vetoed a U.N. Security Council resolution condemning "Israeli practices and measures against the civilian population in southern Lebanon ... which are in violation of the rules and principles of international law." U.S. Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick said the resolution-which also called on Israel to halt its crackdown in southern Lebanon and to withdraw "unconditionally"-was "unbalanced" and that it "does not accord Israel fair treatment." Egypt, France, and 9 other nations voted for the resolution, while Australia, Britain and Denmark abstained.

- May 15: The jihad Islamique distributes for the first time the photographs of its six hostages: Paperboard, Fountain, Weir, Anderson, Buckley, Janco. [B3, p252]

- May 22: Disappearance in western of Beirut of the journalist Jean-Paul Kauffmann and the researcher Michel Seurat. Revendiction: Islamic Jihad. [B3, p252]

- April 3: The Reagan Administration charged Israel with violating the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention by transferring approximately 1,200 prisoners from its Ansar prison in southern Lebanon to a prison in Israel. The State Department issued a statement saying: "We have consistently taken the position that the Fourth Geneva Convention applies to areas of Lebanon under Israeli occupation. According to the convention, protected persons are to be detained only within the occupied territory and their transfer to the territory of the occupying power is prohibited, regardless of motive. It appears that Israel's actions are inconsistent with certain provisions of the Geneva Convention." Most of the 1,200 prisoners moved by Israel April 2 were Muslim Shiites.

- May 16: Islamic Jibad, the group holding four Americans and two Frenchmen hostage, released photographs of six captives and a statement addressed to families of the hostages. "For the last time," the statement said, "we wish to stress that all contact with your abducted relatives will be cut off and the consequences will be catastrophic if you do not act seriously and force your governments to intervene for the release (of) all our brothers in Kuwait." Islamic Jihad is seeking the release of 17 pro-Iranian Arabs who were convicted in Kuwait for involvement in bombings of the U.S. and French embassies in December, 1983.

- May 17: A caller told Agence France-Presse in Beirut that the U.S. government should expect "the greatest military operation it has ever seen" because it refused to negotiate on the terms proposed by Islamic Jihad for the release of the American hostages. The caller said that "the refusal of our demands would mean hell for American diplomats across the world."

- June 10: Israel completed the withdrawal of its combat forces from southern Lebanon, although an undisclosed number of Israeli soldiers remained inside a security belt Israel established in Lebanon that ranges from approximately five to nine miles north of the Israeli border. Since Israel launched its invasion of Lebanon on June 6, 1982, it has suffered 654 dead and almost 4,000 wounded. During the invasion tens of thousands of Lebanese and Palestinians also were killed and wounded.
Thomas Sutherland, dean of agriculture at the American University of Beirut, was kidnapped by unidentified gunmen as he drove from the Beirut airport. He became the eighth American to be kidnapped in Lebanon since March, 1984. One, Jeremy Levin, a correspondent for Cable News Network, escaped and the others are still missing.

- June 6: Israel completed the withdrawal of the agreed number of troops from south Lebanon, leaving only 1,000.

- June 14: Diversion on Beirut of flight 847 of the TWA. [B3, p252] Two Lebanese Shiite gunmen seized TWA flight 847 bound from Athens to Rome with 104 American and 49 other passengers and forced it to fly first to Beirut, where more gunmen came aboard, and then to Algiers. During the first stop in Beirut, the hijackers released 19 passengers, mostly women and children. Another 23 were freed in Algiers. [S21]

- June 15: TWA Flight 847 returned to Beirut where the gunmen killed U.S. Navy diver Robert Stethem and read a statement which included the demand for Israel's release of some 766 Lebanese, mainly Shiite Muslims, being held in Atlit prison in Israel. The plane then returned to Algiers, where the hijackers repeated the demands, released another 50 passengers, and threatened to kill the remaining passengers if Israel did not comply. [S21]

- June 16: TWA Flight 847 left Algiers for the second time for its third stop in Beirut, one hour before expiration of the deadline set by the hijackers to fulfill their demands. In Beirut, they requested Nabih Berri, leader of Amal, the Shiite militia, to negotiate on their behalf. One more hostage was released for medical reasons. U.S. media reported that ships of the U.S. Sixth Fleet were dispatched to the Eastern Mediterranean and a unit of the U.S. Army's "Delta Force" had departed for the Middle East. [S21]

- June 24: Israel released 31 of the 766 Lebanese and Palestinian detainees it had been holding in Atlit prison near Haifa. Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin insisted that the move was "not linked whatsoever" to the demands of the hijackers of TWA flight 847 but was in accordance with Israeli law which allows detainees to appeal to a special committee and gain release if not found guilty. In response to the measure, Nabih Berri said "we are expecting the release of 731 prisoners and not merely 31" and called for a pullback of U.S. Navy ships standing off Beirut's shore. [S21]

- June 26: Nabih Berri released hostage Jimmy Dell Palmer, suffering from a heart condition, and introduced a proposal to move the remaining 39 hostages either to a Western embassy in Beirut or to a third country such as Syria. He stipulated that the government concerned should not free the hostages until Israel released its Lebanese prisoners. Meanwhile, in Washington, U.S. Secretary of State Shultz called for unconditional release of all detained Americans, including 7 kidnapped earlier in Lebanon. [S21]

- June 28: Syrian sources said the hostages "will be fully freed in Damascus" the following day. [S21]

- June 29: A plan to free the hijackers failed when Nabih Berri and the hijackers demanded that the United States guarantee that it would not retaliate militarily for the hostage crisis. Berri's concern stemmed from remarks by President Reagan in which he referred to the hijackers as "thugs, murderers and barbarians." [S21]

- June 30: Release of the hostages of the TWA. [B3, p252] After 17 days of captivity, the 39 remaining American hostages from TWA flight 847 were transported to Damascus and, after a press conference in which they thanked Syrian President Assad for his intervention, flown to Frankfurt, Germany. The release took place after the Department of Sate issued an ambiguous statement in apparent response to Berri's demand for no retaliation. Though seven Americans kidnapped over the previous year-and-a-half in Lebanon were not part of the release, the administration reaffirmed its commitment to their release, and noted that Syria is working on behalf of the U.S. to gain their freedom. In a televised address, President Reagan said "Terrorists, be on notice: we will fight back against you in Lebanon and elsewhere." [S21]

- July 1: The U.S. Government announced that it is taking steps to close down Beirut International Airport, including termination of all services of Lebanon's Middle East Airlines between Beirut and New York as well as those of Lebanese and American cargo carriers that use Beirut Airport. Ambassador to the U.S. Abdallah Bouhabib protested that the action would damage the Lebanese people and government, but would not hurt the terrorists.

- August 3: Nabih Berri, leader of the Shiite Amal militia, after meeting with graduates of the American University of Beirut, told reporters he hoped "to gain the release of some [abducted] AUB employees, such as the Dean of Agriculture."

- August 28: Israel released from Atlit prison another 113 detainees from the group of more than 700 Lebanese and Palestinians from southern Lebanon arrested during Operation Iron Fist last year. 

- September 9: High-level French official declares that Damascus is attempting in every way possible to disrupt all positive efforts by the Lebanese to negotiate among themselves. He also holds Syria accountable for the bombing of the French Embassy from positions occupied by Syrian forces.

- September 10: Israel released from Atlit prison near Haifa the last 119 of I 100 Lebanese and Palestinians originally arrested in southern Lebanon as part of Operation Iron Fist and then transferred to Israel. The hijackers of TWA flight 847 in June had demanded the immediate release of the entire group. The Israeli Government continued to deny any connection between the release of prisoners from Atlit and the resolution of the TWA hostage crisis.

- September 30: Removal in Beirut of four sovietic diplomats. They are released one month later, October 30

- October 4: The jihad Islamic advertisement the execution of the American diplomat William Buckley, head of post office of the CIA in Lebanon. [B3, p253]

- November 18: Terry Waite, a special envoy of Archbishop of Canterbury Robert Muncie, arrived in Beirut to seek the release of four Americans now being held hostage in Lebanon. Waite later said he had established "a measure of trust" with the captors and reported that the four Americans were in "satisfactory condition."

- December 15: Israel accused Syria of seeking a military confrontation by redeploying Soviet-built SA2 surface-to-air missiles in three locations along Syria's border with Lebanon, threatening Israeli reconnaissance flights over Northern and Eastern Lebanon. The State-controlled Syrian newspaper Al-Tishrin, in turn, charged Israel with "sounding the war drums."

- December 28: Syria tries implementing the tripartite agreement; the leaders of Lebanon's three main militias--Nabih Berri of Amal, Walid Jumblatt of the Druze Progressive Socialist Party, and Elie Hobeika of the LF--signed the Tripartite Accord in Damascus. A revolt from East Beirut killed the attempt on the spot

back to top

12. 1987

Although violent fighting generally eased between 1986 and 1988.

- January 16: Fierce fighting raged within the Christian camp between partisans of Hobeika and Geagea. Hobeika fled to Paris, and then to exile in Damascus.

- February 17: Israel began a six day sweep of 20 villages in southern Lebanon, moving outside its so called "security zone" to search for two Israeli soldiers captured by Muslim guerrillas. More than 1,500 Israeli troops rounded up villagers for questioning and arrested over 150 Shiite suspects, but failed to locate the kidnapped soldiers. 

- March 5: Islamic Jihad announces the execution of the French researcher Michel Seurat. [B3, p253]

- March 8: Removal at bir el-Abed of a team of journalists of Antenne 2. Revendiction: revolutionary justice organization. [B3, p253]

- March 14: Islamic Jihad diffuses a first video cassette of Carton, Fontaine and Kauffmann. [B3, p253]

- March 21: a car bomb exploded in Furn_El_Chebback (East Beirut), leaving 30 dead and at least 132 injured.

- May 7: Removal of the French Camille Sonntag in Western Beirut. [B3, p253]

- June 20: Release of the two French hostages: Philippe Rochot and George Hansen. [B3, p253]

- July 4: Syrian troops entered West Beirut for the first time since being expelled during the 1982 Israeli invasion.

- July 29: A Mercedes exploded on the Wadih Nahim Street in Ein el Remmaneh, a Beirut suburb, with 31 dead and 128 injured.

- July 30: A booby trapped Mercedes exploded in Barbir, West Beirut. The result: 22 dead and 163 injured.

- August 11: Lebanon's Christian-owned Central Information Agency reported that American hostage Terry Anderson is "sick and suffering from health problems that confine him to bed." U.S. officials said they had no information on Anderson's health.

- August 20: Attacks against French positions of Finul at Maarakeh, in the south of Lebanon. [B3, p253]

- September 4: Attack against French positions of Finul at Jouaya in the South of Lebanon: 3 dead. [B3, p253]

- September 18: Hussein Mustafa Teliess who currently lives in Syria on a street called Hayh Abou Remaneh, killed the special French communiqué at the French Embassy using a special silencer gun outside the Embassy premises.

- September 24: Revolutionary justice organization has affirmed to hold for six months, the French Macel Coudari. [B3, p253] 

- September 27: A 3,000-man force loyal to Hobeika launched a surprise attack across the Green Line from Muslim West Beirut against East Beirut. By noon the invasion of East Beirut was halted

- October 7: Syrian agents gun down the vice president of the Islamic center in Lebanon, Sheik Subhi Alsaleh, in broad daylight.

- October 16: Israeli jets raided a Palestinian refugee camp in southern Lebanon in retaliation for the previous day's grenade attack in Jerusalem. One plane was shot down. Israeli forces rescued the jet's pilot, but the navigator was captured by the Shiite Al-Amal militia.

- November 2: American hostage David P. Jacobsen was freed by Islamic Jihad after 17 months in captivity.

- November 11: Release of the French hostages Marcel Coudari and Camille Sonntag in Damas. [B3, p253]

- November 22: Syrian army units kidnaps hundreds of Lebanese from the city of Tripoli and tens of them were found dead in different alleys and streets around Tripoli.

- November 31: Syrian army carries out executions of 34 Lebanese civilians accusing them, without any trial or proof, of defying the Syrian occupation in Lebanon.

back to top

13. 1987

Hizballah followed strictly the theological line of Iran's Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini and called for the establishment in Lebanon of Islamic rule modeled on that of Iran. He rejected any compromise with Lebanese Christians.

Lebanese government annulled the Treaty of Cairo signed with the PLO in 1969,which authorized them to use Lebanon as a base for military operations against Israel.

- January 13: Arrest of a French journalist, Roger Auque, in western of Beirut . [B3, p254]

- January 18: Arrest of a German engineer, Rudolph Cordes in western of Beirut. [B3, p254]

- January 20: Arrest of the English emissary Terry Waite by justice revolutionnaire organization. [B3, p254]

- January 21: Arrest of a German technician, Alfred Schmitt Cordes in western of Beirut. [B3, p254]

- January 24: Arrest of four professors: three americain and one indian in western of beirut. [B3, p254]

- January 31: The United States requires of their nationals to leave Lebanon. [B3, p254]

- February: In mid-February, a new round of fighting broke out in West Beirut, this time between Druze and Shia militias, both of which were regarded as Syrian allies. The combat was described by witnesses as being of unrivaled intensity in twelve years of war, with the militiamen using formations of Soviet-made T-54 tanks that Syria had supplied to both sides. Five days of combat caused an estimated 700 casualties and set much of West Beirut aflame.

- February 24: A dozen trucks full of Syrian commandos entered the Basta neighborhood, a Shia stronghold, and attacked the Fathallah barracks, the headquarters of the Hizballah organization. There, Syrian troops killed eighteen Hizballah militants.

- June 17: Arrest of the americain journalist Charles Glass in western Beirut. He escapes on August 18. [B3, p254]

- August 2: Syrian agents gun down President Amin Gemayel's special advisor, Doctor Muhammad Shoukeir, inside his home in West Beirut.

- November 27: Release in western Beirut of the 2 French hostages: Jeau Louis Normandin and Roger Auque. [B3, p254]

back to top

14. 1988

- April: Fighting between Amal and Hizbullah in southern Lebanon, lasting for nearly. 2 months.

- April 5: Diversion of Boeing KU 422 by Hizbullah of Kuwait airways on the airport of Machad (Iran) . [B3, p254] [S18]

- April 7: An inter-Shi'ite war is provoked between Amal and Hezbollah, 30 deads in 48 hours. [B3, p254]

- May 4: Release of 3 french hostages: Jean-Paul kauffmann, Marcel Carton, et Marcel Fontaine. [B3, p254]

- May 27: The Syrian troops entered the southern suburbs of Beirut, the stronghold Shiite where the Western hostages are held. [B3, p254]

- August 9: Israeli fighter planes bombed Palestinian positions in southern Lebanon, killing three people and wounding five.

- September 8: Syrian troops in Beirut arrested two Lebanese Shiite Muslims on suspicion of involvement in the kidnappings of foreigners. Sources said the Syrians were tipped off by their allies in Amal, the mainstream Shiite movement, and that the two suspects are members of the Iranian-backed Hezbollah.

- September 12: A pro-Iranian Shiite Muslim group released West German hostage Rudolf Cordes, 55, after 20 months in captivity. The group said its action was in response to "guarantees for a settlement" of the cases of two Lebanese held by West Germany as terrorists, including Mohammed Ali Hammadi, now on trial in Frankfurt for the 1985 hijacking of a TWA jetliner. West German officials denied any such agreement.

- September 21: Syrian President Hafez Al-Assad summoned Christian and Muslim Lebanese leaders in an attempt to find a compromise decisi6n on a successor for Lebanese President Amin Gemayel. Gemayel returned to Beirut after four hours of talks, saying no agreement had been reached.

- September 22: Minutes before his term expired, Lebanese President Amin Gemayel appointed a six-man military government to steer the country out of the constitutional crisis caused by the failure of Parliament to agree on a successor. Three Muslim officers refused to join the military government, led by Lebanese army chief Maj. Gen. Michel Aoun, a Christian Maronite. The next day, Muslim Cabinet members claimed they were still holding power and rejected the legitimacy of Gemayel's appointments. The US Embassy evacuated 17 of its personnel from Lebanon. Daoud Daoud, second man of Amal, is assassinated at the southern entry of Beirut. [B3, p254]
September 23: Israeli planes bombed a Palestinian refugee camp described as a PLO guerrilla base outside of Sidon in southern Lebanon, wounding five in the 14th such raid on Lebanon this year.
October 21: The Israeli government bombed and rocketed what it described as the main Hezbollah headquarters and Palestinian bases in Lebanon in retaliation for the attack on Israeli soldiers in Lebanon. A four-year-old boy was among the 15 dead. Another 35 persons were wounded.

- October 26: Israeli warplanes attacked Palestinian bases at Sidon and Beirut, killing at least 19 and wounding 41. The Los Angeles Times reported that Col. Mustafa Daoud, a Fatah militia commander, was among those killed.

- November 21: The four higher reponsables of Hezbollah escape an attack with the booby-trapped car on the road of Baalbeck. [B3, p254]

- December 9: Israeli commandos raided the Lebanese headquarters of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC), killing 20 and wounding dozens more. The raid, Israel's deepest incursion into Lebanon since its 1982 invasion, drew widespread international criticism, including disapproval from Secretary of State Shultz.

- December 12: The Lebanese kidnappers of American hostage Marine Lt. Col. William R. Higgins threatened to kill him in retaliation for the Israeli raid three days earlier on the PFLP-GC headquarters. Higgins, the last of nine Americans to be kidnapped and held in Lebanon, was head of an observer mission attached to a UN peacekeeping force in southern Lebanon.

- December 16: Three Irish soldiers serving with the UN peacekeeping force in south Lebanon were kidnapped by Lebanese gunmen demanding the release of Jawad Kasfi, identified by Israel as the leader of the Religious Resistance Front, a faction affiliated with Hezbollah. Kasfi was seized Dec. 15 by Israeli soldiers in the village of Tibnin, which is inside the area patrolled by the UN force in south Lebanon.

- December 17: The three Irish soldiers kidnapped by a pro-Iranian Shi'ite Muslim group in south Lebanon were rescued by the mainstream Shi'ite Muslim militia Amal.
December 23: Palestinian guerrillas and Lebanese Shi'ite Muslim militiamen announced an agreement to end three years of fighting in southern Lebanon. The "pact of understanding" was signed by leaders of Amal, the main Shi'ite militia, and the PLO.

back to top

15. 1989

- January 10: The Israeli army revealed that its soldiers had killed eight guerrillas Jan. 7 in its self-proclaimed security zone in southern Lebanon. The clash, the first between Israeli troops and guerrillas in south Lebanon this year, took place about I I miles from the Israeli border near the village of Aaramta.

- January 11: In the first Israeli air raid against Lebanese targets this year, Israeli aircraft attacked guerrilla bases of Abu Nidal's Fatah Revolutionary Council. There were no reports of deaths or casualties following the raids in the Bkusta and Majdalyoun valleys south of Sidon.

- January 25: After three days of intense negotiations in Damascus, Syria, leaders of the Syrian-backed Amal and Iranian-sponsored Hezbollah, rival Shi'ite militias, agreed to a cease-fire to end their escalating conflict in Beirut and southern Lebanon.

- February 14: Aoun struck at the LF in the Matn and in East Beirut and after two days of fighting the army gained the upper hand.

- February 15: Rival Christian forces fought with tanks and heavy artillery for 17 hours for control of the Christian areas of Lebanon in one of the most serious power struggles among Christians during the 14-year-old Lebanese civil war. The battle, in which at least 40 people were killed and 90 wounded, pitted the Christian forces of the Lebanese army led by Gen. Michel Aoun against Lebanese Forces militiamen led by Dr. Samir Geagea.

- February 24: Aoun ordered the closure of all illegal ports to compel shipping to use the Port of Beirut and so the Syrian controlled militias refused to comply with Aoun's orders.

- March 6: Aoun activated the army's 'Marine Operations Room' and started a blockade of West Beirut militia ports.

- March 14: Syrians, equipped with heavy artillery of 240 ml and 180 ml, shell the hills of Armoune in east and West Beirut; especially hitting hard the UNESCO: killing tens of innocent civilians. Aided by the Syrian navy and missile launchers, and in collaboration with Israel, Syria closed in on East Beirut: the area under the true Lebanese autonomy.

- March 14: "war of liberation" to eject Syrian forces from Lebanon. The beginning of the end of the war came when Lebanon's parliamentarians met in AtTa'if, Saudi Arabia, from September 30 through October 22, 1989.

- April 16: At least 23 people were killed during shelling by Christian and Muslim militias in Beirut, including the Spanish ambassador to Lebanon. More than 100 others were wounded during artillery exchanges between Syrian troops and their Muslim allies and the Christian militias. 

- April 19: Gen. Michel Aoun, commander of the military forces in Lebanon, criticized members of the parliament and the head of the Maronite Church, who had appealed earlier in the week for an end to the fighting in Beirut.

- April 20: The Arab League proposed a plan for the civil war in Lebanon that involves a league-monitored cease-fire, negotiations with Syria over its future role in Lebanon, and talks among Lebanon's Christian and Muslim leaders to choose a new form of government.

- April 27: The foreign ministers of the Arab League called for an immediate cease-fire in Beirut and the reopening of blockaded Lebanese ports in an attempt to end the artillery war which had caused more than 250 deaths over the preceding six weeks. Both Gen. Michel Aoun, leader of the Christian cabinet, and Selim Al-Hoss, head of the rival Muslim cabinet, pledged to cooperate with the Arab League observers to be sent to oversee the cease-fire.

- May 3: Lebanese Army Maj. Gen. Michel Aoun, commanding Christian forces in East Beirut, agreed to suspend his blockade of Muslim militia ports at the request of Arab League cease-fire mediators.

- May 9: Syrian agents assassinate Mufti Hassan Khalid because he informed Kuwaiti's Ambassador that the Syrian artillery from its positions at the hills of Aramoun were responsible for shelling east and West Beirut; causing the massacre of UNESCO.

- May 16: The leading Sunni Muslim cleric in Lebanon, Sheik Hassan Khaled, and 21 other people were killed by a bomb explosion while Khaled's motorcade drove along a main Beirut street. Sheik Hassan Khaled had been a leading voice for moderation in Lebanon. No group claimed responsibility. 

- May 28: Two Palestinian guerrillas were killed in a shoot-out with Israeli troops and militiamen of the South Lebanon army near the village of Marjayoun in the Israeli-proclaimed security zone in Lebanon. During the clash, the guerrillas fired rockets into northern Israel, the first such attack this year. 

- September 6: U.S. Ambassador John McCarthy closed the U.S. embassy annex in Awkar following anti-American demonstrations. [S16]

- October 22: Taif accord: A new constitution is shaped, giving the Muslims more power, leaving the presidency in the hands of the Christians but reducing his powers: Some 60 National Assembly deputies, meeting in Taif, Saudi Arabia, agreed to government reforms that included increasing the National Assembly from 99 to 108 members evenly divided between Christian and Muslim/Druze, disarming the militias, and calling for discussions of a Syrian withdrawal within 2 years after ratification of the "Taif" agreement [S16]; Michel Aoun rejected it.

- November 1: The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the killing of Mohammad Ali Marzouki, 70, the only remaining Saudi Embassy official in Lebanon.

- November 4: 
Lebanese Maronite General Michel Aoun declared the Lebanese parliament dissolved in an effort to prevent the election of a new president and ratification of an Arab League-endorsed peace plan proposed by Lebanese deputies in Taif, Saudi Arabia. 

The Lebanese Parliament met in a remote village in the north of the country to ratify the Arab-sponsored peace plan and elect Rene Moawad, a Maronite Christian, as the country's new president. 

René Moawad is elected president, but killed 17 days later and replaced by Elias Hrawi.

- November 13: Selim al-Hoss, a Sunni Muslim and US-educated economist who has been serving as prime minister of Lebanon, was named to the same post by newly-elected President Rene Moawad.

- November 17: Following a two-month absence from Lebanon, US Ambassador John McCarthy presented his credentials to President Rene Moawad at the latter's ancestral home in the mountains of northern Lebanon. McCarthy than departed Lebanon for consultations in Washington. 

- November 22: Lebanese President Rene Moawad was assassinated after 17 days in office. There was no claim of responsibility for the killing of Moawad along with fourteen others, including 10 of his bodyguards and four Syrian soldiers, by a bomb detonated by remote control as the President's motorcade returned from an observance of Lebanese Independence Day. 

- November 23: Israeli planes attacked two bases of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, General Command located in the Syrian-controlled Bekaa Valley. 

- November 24: The Lebanese Parliament elected Maronite Christian deputy and businessman Elias Hrawi to succeed Rene Moawad as president. Hrawi, whose candidacy was supported by Syria, retained Selim al-Hoss as prime 

- November 25: As assassinated Lebanese President Rene Moawad was buried, his successor Elias Hrawi declared the cabinet of Christian General Michel Aoun dissolved and named a new government. Businesses in Muslim and Christian areas of the country closed in a nationwide day of mourning. 

- November 24: The parliament met in the Beqaa Valley and elected Elias Hrawi to replace him.

- November 27: Syrian tanks moved to within two miles of Christian General Michel Aoun's stronghold in the Lebanese Presidential Palace in Baabda, as the standoff between the rebellious general and the newly elected government of Lebanon took on military overtones.

back to top

16. 1990

- January 22: A month-long conflict between rival Shi'i Amal and Hezbollah militias in southern Lebanon expanded as meetings between Syrian President Assad and Lebanese President Hrawi concluded with an agreement to restrict the entry of illegal aliens into Lebanon, a move aimed primarily at Iran, which backs Hezbollah. Syria, which backs Amal, also agreed to give military aid to the Hrawi government.

- January 31: Heavy fighting between the Lebanese army and the Lebanese Forces, which declared allegiance to Hrawi. Aoun is able to take control of 35% of the Christian part of Beirut.

- January 16: Lebanese Christian Gen. Michel Aoun captured East Beirut strongholds in Ain al Rummaneh of the Christian Lebanese Forces loyal to Samir Geagea in heavy inter-Christian fighting.

- January 23: Shi'i Hezbollah spiritual leader Sheikh Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah called for the release of the 18 Western hostages held in Lebanon.

- January 24: A Lebanese ferry en route from Cyprus to the port of Jounieh, held by Lebanese forces of Samir Geagea, was fired on off the Lebanese coast by artillery controlled by Gen. Michel Aoun, killing one passenger and wounding at least fifteen.

- March 4: Syrian Foreign Minister Farouk Charaa met with Iranian diplomat Mahmoud Hashemi, brother of President Rafsanjani, to discuss Western hostages held in Lebanon.

- March 24: Renewed fighting between the rival Christian troops of Gen. Michel Aoun and Samir Geagea ended the latest cease-fire.

- April 9: The Lebanese Forces announced their support for Taif and their readiness to hand over the institutions under their control to the rival government in west Beirut.

- August 1: Syria and its allies surround the area loyal to the Lebanese autonomy in an attempt to overthrow the legitimate transitional government of General Aoun.

- September 30: 15 civilians and wounding 14 others when the Lebanese forces opened the fire on Nahr el Mott

- October 12: Syrian agent Francois Halal, following a plan supervised by the Secretary General of the Baath party in Lebanon, Abdallah Alamin, attempts to assassinate General Michel Aoun at the Baabda Presidential Palace.

- October 13: Following an air and ground campaign, the troops loyal to Aoun are defeated by Syrian army. Lebanese army units and civilians resisted in every way possible. Syria crushed the resistance; proceeding on a killing spree of more than 400 innocent civilians execution style in the area of Daher Elwahish, Souk Elkharab, Bessouse, Hadath and Biet Meri. Syria arrested hundreds of Lebanese army officers and soldiers, as well as civilians and transferred them all to Syrian jails where they remain captive even today. Aside from all the killing and arrests, the Syrian army penetrated the Defense Ministry offices and stole all the equipment that they could get their hands on: computers, desks, maps, archives, historic and strategic documents belonging to Lebanon and moved everything to Syria.
Aoun is exiled to France. The Syrian-backed Lebanese army achieves a strong position in the country. Peace seems to return to Lebanon. Slow restructuring of Beirut starts. At this time 35,000 Syrian troops remains in Lebanon.

- October 21: Dany Chamoun, the leader of the National Liberal party, who was against Syrian presence in Lebanon and had been a strong supporter of General Aoun's policies was killed in cold blood by uniformed gunmen who broke into his apartment in the early hours. His wife and his two young boys, aged 5 and 7, were also killed in the most disgraceful of ways.

- October 26: The Lebanese Forces under Samir Jaja, the Amal militia under Nabbih Birri, and the Druze forces under Walid Jumblatt agreed to withdraw their militias from Beirut, leaving the Lebanese Armed Forces in control. [S16]

- November 28: Israeli planes bombed Palestinian guerrilla bases in southern Lebanon in retaliation for an attack which killed five Israeli soldiers. 

back to top